Vaccines are made to improve our body’s immune system so that the immune system will be able to fight the disease that you will be vaccinated against. Presently the world is dealing with a pandemic that has greatly affected the lifestyle of the people negatively. This disease is spreading very fast like fire, to slow it down we need to follow the guidelines given by the ministry of health which include wearing a face mask, washing our hands, and maintaining a physical distance.
Above all, we all need to be vaccinated against this disease so that our lifestyles will be back like normal. Various vaccines are made by various companies around the world today. Among the vaccines made includes Johnson & Johnson vaccine, Moderna mRNA vaccines, Pfizer, AstraZeneca, etc.
Ways in which COVID-19 Vaccines Operates
Every COVID-19 vaccine makes your immune system produce antibodies in fighting COVID-19. Vaccines of COVID-19 utilize a harmless form of a spikelike construction on the surface of the COVID-19 virus known as S protein.
When germs like the virus causing COVID-19, gets to our bodies, they attack the immune system & multiply. The invasion, which is understood as infection, is whatever causes illness. The immune system utilizes numerous tools to fight-infection. Blood consists of red cells, that carry oxygen to organs, tissues & immune or white cells that fight infection. Various kinds of white blood-cells fight infection in various ways.
T-lymphocytes are different kinds of defensive white-blood-cell. The attacks cells at the body which have been infected already
B-lymphocytes are protective white blood cells that produce antibodies that attack pieces of the virus that’s left behind by macrophages.
Macrophages refer to white blood-cells which swallow up & digest germs & dead or cells that are dying. Macrophages leave behind sections of attacking germs, known as “antigens”. The body finds antigens as unsafe & excites the antibodies to attack mood.
Various kinds of vaccines operate in various ways for offering protection. Though with every kind of vaccine, the human body gains some “memory” T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes which remembers the way to fight the virus in the future.
This typically requires a few weeks after the vaccination of your body in producing T-lymphocytes & B-lymphocytes. Therefore, it’s possible someone person can be infected with a virus that causes COVID-19 before or after vaccination & then is sick the reason being the vaccine didn’t have sufficient time to offer protection.
Other times after vaccination, the process of creating immunity causes symptoms, like fever. The symptoms are common and they are signs indicating that the body is developing immunity.
Types of COVID19 vaccines
- Messenger RNA vaccine
This kind of vaccine utilizes hereditarily engineered mRNA which offers your cells guidelines on the way to make S-protein available on the surface of the COVID-19 virus. After getting the vaccine, your immune-cells begin making S-protein pieces & displaying them at cell surfaces. This makes your body create antibodies. When you later get infected with the COVID-19 virus, the antibodies battle the virus.
After offering instructions, mRNA is instantly broken down. This never gets in the nucleus of the cells, where the DNA is found. Both the Moderna and the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines utilize mRNA.
- Viral vector vaccines
Same as mRNA vaccines, the viral vector vaccines don’t have the entire SARS-CoV-2 virus. They utilize a harmless virus that delivers the gene which enables our cells to create a spike protein.
The Sputnik V, Johnson & Johnson and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines are the best examples of viral vector vaccines which use various adenoviruses as a vector or as a delivery system. Adenoviruses cause the common cold, & numerous various kinds of adenoviruses can infect various species.
Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine utilizes a chimpanzee-adenovirus vector known as ChAdOx1. Sputnik V vaccine from Russia uses 2 various human-adenovirus vectors known as Ad26 & Ad5. Johnson and Johnson use Ad26-virus to make their vaccine.
All these three vaccines consist of the gene for spike protein & deliver it into cells after the injection. Cells then create spike protein & present it in the immune system.
With mRNA COVID19 vaccines, viral-vector vaccines don’t carry the information needed for the cells to create the whole SARS-CoV-2 virus. Thus, they can’t cause COVID-19.
- Protein subunit vaccines
These vaccines include harmless proteins pieces of the virus that causes COVID-19 instead of the whole germ. When vaccinated, our bodies find that protein shouldn’t be there & build T-lymphocytes & antibodies which remember how it fights the virus which brings COVID-19 if we’re infected in the future.
Novavax vaccine is made using protein subunit way. Scientists make huge amounts of SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein in the lab for experimental use. Novavax utilizes insect cells for growing the proteins before it’s purified. Purified proteins then create nanoparticles.
On their own, protein nanoparticles can’t produce a strong immune reaction, thus Novavax adds some adjuvant chemical that stimulates the immune system.
Subunit vaccines don’t carry sufficient viral material which makes the entire SARS-CoV-2 virus hence; they can’t cause COVID-19.
Every medicine, plus vaccines, is always tested for effectiveness and safety before they are certified for use. Moreover, their safety is checked continuously while still in use.